The History of Blood Pressure Monitoring
The first well-documented instance of blood pressure measurement was in 1733 by Reverend Stephen Hales, who inserted a long glass tube upright into an incision made in a horse's carotid artery. The pumping action of the heart generated a pressure force, causing the blood level to rise in the tube.
The need for a noninvasive method for blood pressure determination arose due to the danger of infection and the amount of blood loss involved in these early invasive procedures. In 1905, Korotkoff described the auscultatory sounds which became the foundation for the auscultatory (Riva-Rocci) technique. Later in the twentieth century came the development of oscillometric devices, which determine blood pressure using empirically generated pressure-sensitive algorithms.
With the advent of computers and the move towards increased automation, many monitors utilizing new technologies and methodologies have recently been developed. In 1989, Dr. Shiu-Shin Chio patented the Pulse Dynamic technology used exclusively in DynaPulse monitors. This technology is the first to utilize a graphical display of the brachial artery pulsation signal to noninvasively determine blood pressure and cardiovascular performance.